The agreements were confirmed by an act of the French Parliament of 26 March 1935.  The French and Italian parliaments ratified the 1935 agreement. As ratification instruments were not exchanged, the ICJ described the agreement as “un-ratified”.  Perhaps the reason Mussolini triumphed in Abyssinia was as much related to the weakness of the League of Nations as to the strength of Italy. Was the suffering entirely Mussolini? Or should the rest of the League of Nations share responsibility? The Origins of the Second World War, 225-242 In 1919, 32 nations met in France to found the League of Nations. The League Confederation said it would take steps to avoid wars. An attack on a member of the league would be considered an attack on all members who would act together against the aggressor. Laval had replaced Louis Barthou of Yugoslavia as Foreign Minister after his assassination in Marseille on 9 October 1934, along with King Alexander I. Laval borrowed the idea of his predecessor from a collective security system to contain Hitler`s threat in Europe.