47 Terry M. Moe & William G. Howell, The Presidential Power of Unilateral Action, 15 J. L. Econ. &Org. 132, 163 (describing how simply designating an agreement as an “executive agreement” instead of the “Treaty” would allow the president to define foreign policy without having to involve the Senate); See also Matthew A. Crenson & Benjamin Ginsberg, Presidential Power: Unchecked and Unbalanced 321 (2007) (arguing that the use of Franklin D. Roosevelt`s executive agreement was motivated by a desire to circumvent the Senate). 104 It should be borne in mind, however, that the integration of the solid effects of the object does not entail major changes in the coefficients. In order for more differentiated selection effects to fully explain the results, it should be considered that the selection effects within the category are stronger than the selection effects between the categories, for example that the average difference between two tax treaties explains more differences than the average difference between a tax treaty and an arms limitation agreement.
The first opportunity to break is rooted in the fact that non-auto-executive contracts follow a two-step process to become enforceable in U.S. law. Footnote 39 After ratification, self-executive treaties do not require further implementation by a legislative act requiring a simple majority in both the House of Representatives and the Senate. Compare this to the executive agreement for which implementing legislation can and often is adopted to the same extent as ratification. Hathaway argues that the two-stage treaty process allows the president to break his promise after ratification, either intentionally or because the cost of passing implementing legislation is too high in terms of domestic policy. Footnote 40 Since the convening of the First Congress on March 4, 1789, the United States Senate has carefully retained its concurrent power in the design of contracts. On August 22, 1789, President George Washington and Minister of War Henry Knox arrived in the Senate Chamber to seek senate advice and approval of a contract with Indian tribes. While the president, sitting in the president`s chair, and his secretary were waiting, the Senate voted to refer these matters to a committee instead of debating the matter in the presence of Augustus` president. Troubled, Washington decided that in the future it would send written communications on treaties, thus setting the precedent followed by all his successors. The foregoing discussion shows that there are countless theories about the qualitative difference between treaties and agreements between Congress and the executive. A common approach to solving such theoretical debates is to focus on empirical evidence.