Section 13. Content and structure of collective agreements. The content and structure of collective agreements shall be defined by the parties. The cases referred to in the first paragraph of this section shall be examined at the request of one of the parties to a collective agreement or collective agreement of a competent committee or on the initiative of the public prosecutor. While not simply overlooked, the role of collective bargaining as a labour market institution is often based on crude indicators of union density. Drawing on a wealth of collection and management data dating back to the 1960s, this chapter sheds new light on the collective bargaining systems currently in place in OECD countries, taking into account their diversity, complexity and internal institutional complementarities. In particular, this chapter shows that: ← 37. In the case of Italy, there is a tension between the rules defined autonomously by the social partners, which define a hierarchical relationship between the levels of collective agreements, and the case law according to which an agreement at company level can always derogate from sectoral agreements. 25. ←. Available at the following link www.oecd.org/employment/collective-bargaining.htm.
Teachers, administrators and other educators use their collective voices to maintain professional standards inside the classroom and ensure that students receive adequate support, even outside the classroom. Both the AFT and the American Federation of School Administrators (AFSA) have taken strong positions to defend the rights of immigrant children under temporary DACA protection, to strengthen gun control and combat the arming of teachers and other school staff, and to combat the misappropriation of funds intended for public education in private schools. [xx] [xxi] More than six million professionals use collective bargaining to negotiate better wages, social benefits and working conditions, including doctors, nurses, teachers, professors, scientists, engineers, performers, technicians, administrative staff and many others in countless other professions. [i] The two union agreements are not exactly identical, as professionals adapt their collective agreements to their specific professional needs and the context of their employers. Experts have made the increasing diversity of staff a priority and have therefore included in their collective agreements measures to increase diversity and prevent discrimination. Over the past forty years, collective bargaining systems have weakened. The long-standing decline in trade union membership and the increasing individualization of labour relations, combined with policy reforms promoting the decentralization of collective bargaining, have put a strain on existing collective bargaining systems. However, as traditional industrial relations institutions are under increasing pressure, the need for mechanisms for conflict resolution and balance between the interests of workers and employers will not diminish. . .