In addition, countries are working “to reach a global peak in greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible.” The deal has been described as an incentive and driver for the sale of fossil fuels.   Although mitigation and adaptation require increased climate finance, adjustment has generally received less support and mobilized less private sector action.  A 2014 OECD report indicated that in 2014, only 16% of global funds were devoted to climate change adaptation.  The Paris Agreement called for a balance between climate finance between adaptation and mitigation, and in particular highlighted the need to increase support for adaptation to parties most vulnerable to the effects of climate change, including least developed countries and small island developing states. The agreement also reminds the parties of the importance of public subsidies, as adaptation measures receive less investment from the public sector.  John Kerry, as Secretary of State, announced that the United States would double its subsidy-based adjustment funding by 2020.  Although the agreement was welcomed by many, including French President François Hollande and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, criticism also emerged. For example, James Hansen, a former NASA scientist and climate change expert, expressed anger that most of the deal is made up of “promises” or goals and not firm commitments.  He called the Paris talks a fraud without “no deeds, only promises” and believes that only an interterritorial tax on CO2 emissions, which is not part of the Paris Agreement, would reduce CO2 emissions fast enough to avoid the worst effects of global warming.  The Paris Agreement was launched for signature on April 22, 2016 (Earth Day) at a ceremony in New York.
 Following the ratification of the agreement by several European Union states in October 2016, there have been enough countries that have ratified the agreement to produce enough greenhouse gases worldwide for it to enter into force.  The agreement entered into force on November 4, 2016.  The amount of NDDs set by each country defines the objectives of that country. However, the “contributions” themselves are not binding under international law, for lack of specificity, normative character or mandatory language necessary for the creation of binding norms.  In addition, there will be no mechanism to compel a country to set a target in its NPP by a set date, and no implementation if a target set out in a NSP is not met.   There will be only one “Name and Shame” system or, as János Pásztor, UN Under-Secretary-General for Climate Change, cbs News (USA) stated, a “Name and Encourage” plan.  Given that the agreement has no consequences if countries do not comply with their obligations, such a consensus is fragile. A stream of nations withdrawing from the agreement could trigger the withdrawal of other governments and lead to a total collapse of the agreement.  When the agreement was reached on the 5th US President Barack Obama said: “Even if we achieve every goal… .