Changes and modifications to the text of this Consortium Agreement that are not expressly listed in Article 18.104.22.168 require a separate agreement between all parties. Each participant retains its own legal status and the consortium`s control over each participant is generally limited to activities involving the joint venture, in particular profit sharing. A consortium is formed contractually to define the rights and obligations of each member. A joint venture (often abbreviated as a joint venture) is an undertaking set up between two or more parties for the purpose of jointly carrying out economic activities. The parties agree to create a new entity by providing equity and participating in the revenues, expenses and control of the company. In summary, if you have your pre-qualification criteria and the financing of your project in your pocket, turn to a consortium to spread the risk and get excellent value for money. A consortium is easy to form and execute. There are also consortia of for-profit companies, but they are less common. One of the best-known for-profit consortia is the airline manufacturer Airbus Industrie GIE. European aircraft manufacturers are working together in the consortium to produce and sell commercial aircraft.
To illustrate the complexity of such an agreement, Airbus` four partner companies (British Aerospace, Aerospace, Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA and DASA) were both subcontractors and shareholders of the consortium. The consortium agreement is not expressly regulated by the French legislator, but is permissible in the light of the principle of contractual freedom interpreted in Articles 6 and 1134 of the French Civil Code.  Consortia are often found in the non-profit sector, for example among educational institutions. Educational consortia often pool resources such as libraries, research activities and professors and share them with group members for the benefit of their students. Several groups of North American colleges and universities work as consortia. The Tornado was developed and built by Panavia Aircraft GmbH, a trinational consortium consisting of British Aerospace (formerly British Aircraft Corporation), MBB of West Germany and Aeritalia of Italy. [Citation required] Countries that develop standards have a competitive advantage over those that do not, and countries and industries that accept a global standard are often leaders in international trade. .